Vapour / gas: Acetaldehyde
Formula: C2H40
Limit: 25,00 ppm


Acetaldehyde, sometimes known as ethanal, is an organic chemical compound with formula CH3CHO or MeCHO. It is a flammable liquid with a fruity smell. Acetaldehyde occurs naturally in ripe fruit, coffee, and fresh bread, and is produced in installations as part of their normal metabolism. It is generally known that this chemical substance causes a ‘hangover feeling’.

Vapour / gas: Alpha Pinene
Formula: C10H16
Limit: 20,00 ppm


Pinene is an inflammatory, moderately volatile, colourless liquid with a terpentine smell. Their melting and boiling temperature, their densities only differ slightly. α-pinene is harmful, β-pinene is an irritant. α-pineen is usually oxidised to verbenone, myrtenol, pinene oxide and other products.
Flammable liquid and vapour.
Harmful when ingested.
Harmful when in contact with skin.
Harmful when inhaling.
Causes skin irritation.
Causes serious eye irritation.
Can cause an allergic skin reaction.
Can be fatal if the substance ends up in the airways when ingesting.
Poisonous for organisms living in water, with long-term consequences.

Vapour / gas: Ammonia
Formula: NH3
Limit: 20,00 ppm


Ammonia is a gas with a typical pungent smell at room temperature. Ammonia is poisonous when inhaling, can cause burns and strongly irritates the eyes and mucous membranes.

Vapour / gas: Benzene
Formula: C6H6
Limit: 1,00 ppm


Benzene is a colourless liquid with a sweet smell. Brief exposure (five to 10 minutes) at very high concentrations in the air (30-70,000 mg/m³) can be fatal. Lower concentrations (2,500-10,000 mg/m³) can cause dizziness, cardiac arrhythmia, tremors, confusion and unconsciousness. Ingesting high concentrations can cause vomiting, dizziness, convulsions and even death. Nothing is known about ingesting low concentrations. If you get benzene on your skin, this can cause redness and wounds. Benzene that comes into contact with your eyes, can cause general irritation and can damage the cornea.

Vapour / gas: Carbon Dioxide
Formula: CO2
Limit: 5000,00 ppm


Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO 2 ) is a colourless and odourless gas that occurs naturally in the atmosphere. Higher concentrations can quickly lead to circulation disturbances. Symptoms include headache, nausea and vomiting; this can lead to unconsciousness. Is presumed to be non-poisonous.

Vapour / gas: Carbon disulfide
Formula: CS2
Limit: 5,00 ppm


Compound of phosphor and carbon; poisonous, in pure form unpleasantly smelling liquid with a low boiling point. The substance is poisonous in high concentrations and in case of long-term inhalation of carbon disulfide.

Vapour / gas: Carbon Monoxide
Formula: CO
Limit: 25,00 ppm


Carbon monoxide or CO is a compound between Carbon and Oxygen and a gas that is caused by, among others, incomplete combustion of carbon, fossil fuels or other flammable substances containing carbon combustion.

Carbon monoxide is poisonous, colourless and odourless. This makes it extremely dangerous. The gas is poisonous because it binds much more strongly (200-300 x) to the protein hemoglobin than oxygen, because of which the blood can no longer transport oxygen to tissues.

Even in low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the ambient air, the haemoglobin will already contain a considerable percentage of carbon monoxide. Many people in the Netherlands and Belgium still die from carbon monoxide poisoning.

Vapour / gas: Chloropicrin
Formula: CCL3NO2
Limit: 0,10 ppm


Chlorpicrin (aka trichloronitromethane) is a colourless, slightly oily liquid with a pungent smell. The vapour is 5.7 times heavier than air. It is a poisonous substance, and a dangerous concentration can easily be reached when the substance evaporates at 20°C. The substance irritates the eyes, skin and airways and causes watery eyes; a fatal pulmonary oedema can occur in case of exposure to high concentrations. Symptoms in case of short-term exposure include: stomach ache, coughing, diarrhoea, dizziness, headache, nausea, sore throat or vomiting, which can manifest itself with delay.

Vapour / gas: 1,2-Dichloroethane
Formula: C2H4CL2
Limit: 1,70 ppm


1,2 Dichloroethane is a clear liquid with a pleasant, sweet odour. The substance does not occur naturally in the environment, but is produced in enormous amounts by people. The substance is mainly used in the production of vinylchloride and as an additive to petrol. Increased concentrations in the air occur near production companies, garages and petrol stations. Inhaling 1.2 dichloroethane can cause damage to the nervous system, liver, kidneys and lungs. Exposure of laboratory animals to 1.2 dichloroethane increases the chance of stomach, breast, liver and lung cancer. In general, it is believed that these effects also occur in people.

Vapour / gas: 1,2 dibromoethane / Ethylene bromide
Formula: C2H4Br2
Limit: 0,00026 ppm


1.2-Dibromoethane (also known ethylen dibromide or EDB ) is a toxic brom derivative of ethene with a mild, sweet smell. It is a colourless liquid, that s very hard to dissolve in water. The substance can be found in small amounts in the ocean, where the substance is formed by algae. Yet the substance is harmful to the environment if large amounts of it end up in the water.
In case of contact with a hot surface or a flame, this substance forms the poisonous and corrosive vapours hydrogen bromide and bromine. The substance gradually forms corrosive hydrogen bromide under the influence of light and moisture. In addition, EDB is extremely reactive (chance of fire and explosion) in the vicinity of the following substances: aluminium powder, magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium, strong bases and strong oxidation agents. 1,2-dibromoethane causes serious skin and the mucous membranes and is absorbed by the skin. It causes headache, vomiting, uraemia, liver and kidney damage. It is also a carcinogen.

Vapour / gas: Ethylbenzene
Formula: C8H10
Limit: 20,00 ppm


Ethylbenzene is a colourless liquid with a sweet, petrol-like smell. At certain levels, exposure to ethylbenzene can be a health hazard. People exposed to low levels of ethylbenzene in the air for short periods of time have complained of eye and throat irritation.People exposed to low levels of ethylbenzene in the air for short periods of time have complained of short-term eye and throat irritation. People exposed to higher levels have shown signs of more severe effects such as decreased movement and dizziness. People exposed to higher levels have shown signs of more severe effects such as decreased movement and dizziness. No studies have reported death in humans following exposure to ethylbenzene.No studies have been reported about people dying after exposure to ethylbenzene. However, evidence from animals suggests that it can cause death at very high concentrations.However, evidence from animals suggests that it can cause death at very high concentrations. Whether or not long-term exposure to ethylbenzene affects human health is not known because little information is available.Long-term exposure to ethylbenzene has an influence on human health, but little is known about this. Short-term exposure of laboratory animals to high concentrations of ethylbenzene in the air can lead to liver and kidney damage and changes in the nervous system and in the blood. The link between these health effects and exposure to ethylbenzene is not clear because of conflicting results and weaknesses in many of the studies. The link between these health effects and exposure to ethylbenzene is not clear because of conflicting results and weaknesses in many of the studies.

Vapour / gas: Explosion
Formula: LEL
Limit: 10%


Percentages of LEL are used within the reach of the volume percentage. In such a way that the lowest concentration in which a gas or vapour in air is explosive, is called 100% LEL. The so-called «lower explosive limit» (LEL).

Vapour / gas: Formaldehyde
Formula: H2CO
Limit: 0,12 ppm


Formaldehyde is poisonous. Formaldehyde is a proven carcinogenic for people (International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC, 2005). The carcinogenic effect was clearly indicated in studies with animals but epidemiologic studies in people did not yet enable any official conclusions. Until 2004 the IARC classified formaldehyde in group IIa (probably carcinogenic) (WHO, 2000). In June 2004 an international working party of experts decided to put formaldehyde in group I on the basis of existing epidemiologic studies, i.e. carcinogenic in people (IARC, 2005). Formaldehyde can irritate the eyes, nose and throat. It can also cause headache and skin irritation. It can even cause occupational asthma.

Vapour / gas: Hexane
Formula: C5H14
Limit: 20,00 ppm


Hexane is a hydrocarbon and is part of the alkane class, in particular the linear alkanes, which also includes ethane and propane. The prefix hex- indicates that the molecule contains six carbon atoms, while the suffix -ane indicates that these atoms are linked with a single bond. Otherhydrocarbons with six carbon atoms include, for instance, cyclohexane (a cycloalkane) and benzene (an aromatic compound).
Hexane is not very reactive and is a component of petrol. When inhaling, Hexane causes Dizziness. Sleepiness. Drowsiness. Headache. Nausea. Weakness. Unconsciousness. It causes redness and pain on skin and in eyes.

Vapour / gas: Hydrogen Cyanide
Formula: HCN
Limit: 0,90 ppm


Hydrocyanic acid is an extremely poisonous chemical compound of hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. Hydrocyanic acid smells of almonds; this smell is an alarm signal in any chemical laboratory because of the extreme poisonousness of hydrocyanic acid. A large part of humanity can, however, not smell the odour because of genetic causes. For them, hydrocyanic acid is odourless and therefore even more dangerous.

The acute poisonousness of hydrocyanic acid is because it is quickly absorbed in the blood and transported to the tissues through the lungs. The tissues that are most dependent on oxygen, the brain cells, are damaged first. Depending on the dose, an exposed person can soon become unconscious and die within a few minutes. The fatal dose for adults is believed to be approximately 150 mg. The vapour of hydrocyanic acid mixes well with air and easily forms explosive mixtures (explosive at 5.6 to 40% air).

Vapour / gas: Isobutane
Formula: C4H10
Limit: 800,00 ppm


Methylpropane or isobutane (also known under the brand name R600a) is a highly flammable gas.
This gas is often used as a propellant in aerosols and as a coolant in fridges, as eco-friendly alternative to CFCs. Isobutane is an isomer of butane. Reactions include fire, explosion and shortness of breath. Asphyxiation.

Vapour / gas: Isopentane
Formula: C5H12
Limit: 600,00 ppm


Isopentane, C 5 H 12 ,aka methylbutane or 2-methylbutane, is a branched alkane with five carbon atoms. Isopentane is an extremely volatile and very flammable liquid at room temperature temperature and pressure . The normal boiling point is only a few degrees above room temperature and isopentane will easily boil and evaporate on a hot day. Isopentane is often used in combination with liquid nitrogen to reach a liquid bath temperature of-160 ° C.
Inhalation causes serious irritation of the lungs, coughing, pulmonary oedema and agitation, followed by depression.
Ingestion causes nausea and vomiting.

Vapour / gas: Methyl bromide
Formula: CH3Br
Limit: 0,25 ppm


Methyl bromide (CH 3 Br), is a colourless, almost odourless and poisonous gas. In the past it was mainly used for fumigation in agriculture to sterilise the soil and to control rats, insects and fungi (among others in sea containers).

Brief inhalation of methyl bromide can cause dizziness, headache, nausea, stomach cramps and vomiting. It irritates and causes pain in the eyes. It can be fatal, even in low concentrations (depending on the duration of exposure). Contact with the skin causes irritation and itch, followed by blistering and pain.

Vapour / gas: Methylchloride / Chloro Methane
Formula: CH3CL
Limit: 25,00 ppm


Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is a colourless, flammable, liquid gas with an ethery smell. Harmful when inhaling. Can cause asphyxiation in high concentrations. By losing consciousness, the victim is not aware of the asphyxiation. Can cause damage to the central nervous system, metabolism and the digestive system.

Vapour / gas: Methyljodide / Iodomethane
Formula: CH3I
Limit: 0,25 ppm


Methyl iodide, also known as iodomethane, and often abbreviated as «Mel», is the chemical compound with the formula CH 3 I. It is a dense, colourless, volatile liquid. In terms of chemical structure it is related to methane by replacing a hydrogen atom by an atom of iodine. Inhaling the vapour of methyl iodine can damage lungs, liver, kidneys and the central nervous system. Complaints can include: nausea, dizziness and coughing. Long-term skin contact leads to burns. Inhaling large amounts causes pulmonary edema.

Vapour / gas: Methylene chloride / Dichloromethane
Formula: CH2Cl2
Limit: 25,00 ppm


Dichloromethane or methylene chloride is an organic compound that is mainly used as a solvent. It is a colourless and volatile liquid with a moderately sweet smell. Dichloromethane is the least poisonous of the simple chlorinated hydrocarbons, which does not mean that there are no related health risks. Chronic exposure can have a carcinogenic effect. In case of brief skin contact dichloromethane can dissolve part of the skin’s fat and cause skin irritation and possibly blisters or superficial burns.

Vapour / gas: Oxygen
Formula: O2
Limit: Minimum 18,9 Vol% – maximum 21,5 Vol%


Oxygen as a simple substance is mainly found in the atmosphere as dioxygen (O2). In aggregate form it is also a widespread element because all water of the oceans and all silicates the earth’s crust consists of contain oxygen. Measured according to weight, oxygen is by far the most prevailing element in the human body: this consists of approximately 65% oxygen (mainly in the form of water).

Vapour / gas: Pentane
Formula: C5H12
Limit: 600,00 ppm

Pentane is any organic compound with formula C5H12. This alkane is a component of some fuels and is used as speciality solvent in laboratories. Its properties are very similar to those of butane and hexane. It exists in three structural isomer groups that become the branched isomer groups isopentane and neopentane. Highly flammable liquid and vapour.

Asp. Tox. 1 H304 Can be fatal if the substance ends up in the airways when ingesting.
Aquatic Chronic 2 H411 Poisonous for organisms living in water, with long-term consequences.
STOT SE 3 H336 Can cause drowsiness or dizziness.

Vapour / gas: Phosphine
Formula: PH3
Limit: 0,10 ppm


Phosphine, aka hydrogen phosphine (PH 3) is a phosphorous compound, a highly poisonous gas that is often used for pest control through fumigation. The gas itself is odourless, colourless, flammable and already lethal in quite low concentrations.

Vapour / gas: Styrene
Formula: C8H8
Limit: 20,00 ppm


Styrene is the trivial and most used name of ethenylbenzene. At room temperature it is a colourless liquid with an unpleasant smell. The substance irritates the eyes, skin and airways. If this liquid is ingested and then ends up in the airways, this can cause chemical pneumonia. Exposure can decrease consciousness. Repeated or long-term skin contact can cause skin infection. Repeated or long-term contact can make the skin sensitive. Repeated or long-term inhalation can cause asthma. The substance can have effects on the central nervous system. This substances can be carcinogenic in people.

Vapour / gas: Sulfuryldifluoride / Sulfuryldifluoride
Formula: SO2F2
Limit: 2,40 ppm


Sulfuryl fluoride is a colourless and odourless gas that is heavier than air and can therefore accumulate in low spaces and cellars. During fumigation a small amount is added to an agent such as chloorpikrine, which causes watery eyes or throat ache; this serves as warning that the space is not yet safe to enter. Sulfuryl fluoride is a toxic gas that weakens the central nervous system. Symptoms include nausea, stomach ache, dizziness or convulsions. Exposure to high concentrations can lead to irritation or damage to the respiratory system. Long-term exposure can lead to fatal pulmonary oedema.

Vapour / gas: 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
Formula: C2H2F4
Limit: 1000,00 ppm


1,1,2-tetrafluoroethylene, is a HFK or halogenated hydrofluorocarbon. The chemical formula of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluorethane is CH2FCF3. The substance may have a 1,300 times higher global warming potential than CO2, but is it one of the less harmful hydrofluorocarbons. It irritates the eyes, the respiratory tract and skin. Can cause oversensitivity when inhaling or when in contact with skin. Harmful when inhaling. Can cause passing, slight cornea damage. Can cause skin discolouration. The product may stick to the skin and cause irritation when removed. Excessive exposure can cause irritation of the upper respiratory organs (nose and throat) and the lungs. Can cause pulmonary oedema (fluid in the lungs). The asthmatic symptoms can include coughing, breathing difficulties and a sense of tightness of the chest. The effects may occur delayed. In some cases respiratory difficulties can be life-threatening. Symptoms of excessive exposure can have anaesthetic or narcotic effects; dizziness and drowsiness.

Vapour / gas: Toluene
Formula: C7H8
Limit: 40,00 ppm


Toluene or methylbenzene (C6H5CH3), in the past also known as toluol, is a compound consisting of a benzene ring of which one hydrogen atom is replaced by a methyl group. The substance is used as, among others, a dilutant and as a raw material in chemistry. In case of long-term exposure at high concentrations, toluene is harmful and can cause memory problems. Except for the fact that it is cumulatively harmful, it is also harmful in the short term. Inhaling large amounts causes dizziness and nausea. People can even lose consciousness. Benzene is, however, more harmful. This is why there is a preference in chemistry for replacing benzene as a solvent as much as possible by toluene or dimethylbenzene.

Vapour / gas: Trichloronitromethane / Benziform
Formula: CCl4
Limit: 20,00 ppm


Tetrachloromethane or carbon tetrachloride, abbreviated as tetra, is an organic compound of carbon and chlorine, with the chemical formula CCl4. Tetrachlormethane is also known as stain remover. Water and tetrachlormethane do not mix: water is polar and tetrachlormethane nonpolar. Tetrachlormethane was therefore often used as a nonpolar solvent in chemistry. Currently, due to its carcinogenic properties it is no longer allowed to use tetrachlormethane in open reaction vessels, while the use in closed setups is subject to strict regulations. The action of tetrachlormethane is based on the nonpolar property of the substance. Although the bond between carbon and chlorine is polar, the tetrahedral construction of the substance results in the molecule being symmetric and therefore does not contain a net dipole moment. Because tetrachlor methane is nonpolar, it can easily dissolve fat. It also dissolves elemental sulphur and iodine quite well. Inhaling and ingesting tetrachlormethane is poisonous.

Vapour / gas: Xylene
Formula: C8H₁₀
Limit: 48,00 ppm


Xylene or dimethylbenzene, also called xylol in the past (it still is in German), is a clear, colourless liquid with a typical smell. Xylene is dangerous: it has a stupefying effect, is harmful to the skin (eczema) and is carcinogenic (causes cancer).

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